Introduction :  

The deka air preheater is a static recuperative heat exchange principally designed to recover heat from acombution processes by preeating the ai rsupply to burners.
The DEKA trademark is owned by BY-CAST N.V and the air preheaters are manufactured in the BY-CAST plant at Tessenderlo, Belgium.


The plant includes as foundry, devoted to casting the special finned heat transfer surface, plus steel fabrication and assembly shops.

The BY-CAST design and engineering office is also located at the same site. BY-CAST was awarded ISO-9001 certification since 1993/94.

The design was developed specifically to give trouble –free operaton when handling dust-laden or potentially corrosive fluegas.

Heat fransfer surgace comprises banks of horizontal cast iron <<tubes>>,

(sometimes referred to as elements), usually stacked one above another with fluegas flowing vertically downward, outside tubes.

Air flows inside the tubes in cross/ counterflow and the tube banks are separated to give a multipass arrangement. 

In cases where the fuel contain a significant amount of sulphur the first air pass,

i.e the <<cold>> end of the air preheater, is constructed with borosilicate glass tubes supported and sealed in PTFE tubesheets,

This surface is completely resistant to corrosion by acidic condensations. The cold incoming air is heated in this bank before entering the cast iron banks thus protecting the cast iron tubes from con-densation and attack. 

Fllowing are some of the key industies in which DEKA air preheaters have been repeatedly installed for more htan 60 years. 

.      Fossil-fuelled power generation
.      Oil refining
.      Gas processing
.      Fretiliser manufacture
.      Steel and non-ferrous material manufacture
.     Petrochemicals 

The air preheater is usually designed to operate with a new fired heater, boiler or incinerator.
BY-CAST also frequently supplies as DEKA unit for retro-fitting to existing plant.
The flexible BY-CAST design programmes and modular constructionf the airPreheater will always provide a suitable solution for these retro-fits.



HT tube finned outside and inside.
Maximum heat transfer surface.
LT tube finned outside and ribbed inside to increase metal temperature.
LTL tube finned outside smooth inside to give higher metal temperature when approaching dewpoint.
In – line arrangement of vertical fins on outside (fluegas) surface.
Entire surface is swept by gas flow.
No on-line cleaning required.


A 4-pass DEKA air preheater being retro-fitted to the main atmospheric crude furnace in a large oill reinery. This air preheater saves the equivalent of 8000 tons/ year fuel oil thus reducing the quantity of CO2 and SO2 discharged into the atmosphere.

The DEKA unit was delivered to site in 5 preassembled modules – 4 with cast iron tubes plus one with glass tubes.

A smaller 2-pass DEKA air preheater installed some yerar earllier can be seen on page 11 right-hand side.




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